Instructional Strategies CI 5810
Dr. Charles J. Rop, University of Toledo
I. Instructor Information
II. Course Description
III. Course Overview
IV. Course Requirements
VI Tentative Schedule
I. Instructor Information
Dr. Charles J. Rop
338 Snyder Memorial
College of Education
Office Hours: Tuesdays and Wednesdays, 9:00-11:30AM
II. Course Description
This course examines the purposes of different classroom instruction strategies and related roles for teachers. We will critically investigate different instructional models and strategies for teaching including: mediated instruction, lecture-recitation, inductive discussion and inquiry, and cooperative learning models. A special theme of this course is learning to use technology to enhance and improve classroom instruction. Our focus will be firmly placed on student learning outcomes.
Preparing to teach: Comprehension, transformation, instruction, evaluation, reflection
You probably already know that much of what a teacher does in his/her professional life happens before and after actually teaching lessons to students. During a lesson you will be constantly making decisions about the subject matter content, about your own talk and actions, about student interactions and behaviors, perceptions and misperceptions. After teaching a lesson, you will need to spend time in careful reflection and assessment of not only student learning but also of the effectiveness of the lesson just taught. Then, there are all the contextual issues to deal with--like social factors at work in the classroom, or what might have happened in a students home or in the neighborhood this week. In this course, we will describe those activities using the terminology Suzanne Wilson and Lee Shulman use when describing teaching as a cyclical process of five steps:
1. Comprehension. Teachers need to understand the content as well as how the individual student might relate to it. It surprises some people that the content understanding that a teacher needs for teaching is most often deeper and more complex than the understanding needed to know a subject for one's own benefit. Teaching is further complicated by the fact that students come to the classroom with many complex and interesting ideas about the subject that can both aid and interfere with their learning.
2. Transformation. The second step involves presenting the subject matter content in honest forms that still make it understandable, interesting, and meaningful for students. In this way, teachers help students master the language and practices of the subject.
3. Instruction. The third step, instruction, is the one that you are most familiar with from your experience as a student. Beneath the surface activities, though, instruction has a "hidden structure" that is more cyclical than linear. The teacher must master this in order to promote student engagement and understanding.
4. Evaluation. The fourth step includes giving tests, assigning grades, and a lot more. There are many different ways to assess what your students understand and how their understanding is changing. You need this information as much to evaluate your own teaching as to evaluate student learning.
5. Reflection. Becoming a really good teacher depends not as much on what we can teach you in this course as on your ability to learn from experience. Learning from experience depends on the reflection that you do before, during, and after you teach. If you do it well, reflection leads to new and deeper comprehension and you are ready to begin the cycle again, doing all this better than you did before.
Developing Your Own Understanding of Subject Matter
During your academic career, you have received a huge volume of academic knowledge. You were quite successful in school and probably saw school as your ticket to bigger and better things in the future. Much of what you had to learn and do involved pleasing teachers and parents and was centered on getting good grades for your high school transcript. Although you know a lot about subject matters and about schooling, your understandings should and will deepen throughout the years you teach. For example, what you know about literature now is much different from what you will know a few years from now. Deepening your understanding will be one of the major challenges you will face during your teaching career. Whether you are an elementary or secondary teacher, having a passion for lifelong learning in the academic disciplines will be one of the things that makes you an excellent teacher.
Preparing for the number and diversity of your students.
Teaching will be made more complicated by the increasing diversity of students. Diversity will also be make it more interesting if you see diversity as an asset instead of a liability. How can you teach each of your students equitably? In this course, we will try to build on what you have learned about diversity and place those lessons into the context of classroom practice. This will include learning to manage your classroom and choose the best teaching strategies so that each of your students is engaged and improves his/her understandings.
Choosing strategies that promote engagement and understanding in your students.
As teachers, two of the basic goals that we have for all our students are engagement and understanding. Engagement means more than excitement or enthusiasm; it involves students psychological investment in learning. Engaged learners are responsible for their own learning, energized by learning, strategic, and collaborative (NCREL, Plugging In, p. 1). We want our students to be convinced that the subject matter and skills they learn in our classrooms are important. We also want them to be personally committed to learning it. Understanding means more than "knowing the content;" it means being able to use ideas for their intended purposes. It also means making viable connections between academic disciplinary ideas and personal ideas about the world.
At another level, engagement and understanding are complex and difficult goals. As we try to help our students achieve these goals, we encounter many difficulties and dilemmas including:
III. Course Overview.
One of our major goals will be to develop your own personal philosophy of education. You will learn how to make that philosophy inform how you teach and help you decide which teaching strategies you choose to use. I also hope to engage you in discussions and activities that will promote a professional cohort that will help you as you develop your professional career. These processes include gaining an awareness of the nature of professional responsibility, establishing a technical vocabulary, and developing professional collegiality.
During this course, I expect to:
model effective teaching.
help you further develop a philosophy of education.
raise pertinent curriculum, policy and instructional issues.
assist you in choosing sound, practical, instructional strategies.
provide leadership in discussions and delegate responsibility appropriately.
During this course, I expect you to:
come to all the class sessions on time.
participate in all discussions and class activities.
be prepared each day to discuss readings and be punctual with all assignments.
be positive and reflective about your learning experiences.
in general, work as hard as possible to extend your own thinking about subject matter, teaching, and learning in preparation for your future in teaching.
III Assumptions about Computer Technology
Since an important theme for this course is learning to use computer technology to influence student engaged learning, we will make some basic assumptions about your familiarity with or access to computers. If these assumptions are not valid for you, please contact the instructor during the first week of class. We will negotiate some way to make sure you can fully participate in all the course activities.
IV Course Materials
NCREL and other valuable WWW sources
Moore, K.D. (1999) Middle and secondary school instructional methods. NY: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-697-24432-6
Canter, L.(1992) Assertive discipline CA: Canter & Associates. ISBN 0-939007-45-2
Orlich, D.C.; et al.(1990) Teaching strategies. Lexington: D.C. Heath & Company ISBN 0-669-20160-X
Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (1998) Understanding by design. VA: ASCD ISBN 0-87120-313-8
Burden, P.R. & Byrd, D.M. (1999) Methods for effective teaching. Boston: Allyn & Bacon ISBN 0-205-29193-7
Cangelosi, J.S. (1988) Classroom management strategies: Gaining and maintaining students cooperation. NY: Longman ISBN 0-582-28638-7
O'Neil, J. & Willis, S. (Eds) (1998) Revitalizing the disciplines. VA: ASCD ISBN 0-87120-309-X
V Course Requirements
Due to the nature of this course and the relatively short time we have to learn together, it is essential for participants to attend, actively participate in all class discussions, and successfully complete all assignments on time. However it is recognized that occasional professional and personal responsibilities may hinder attendance. When this happens, (a), if possible, please notify me and a pre-designated learning partner ahead of time, (b) obtain any class session notes and handouts from your learning partner, and (c) contact me about any aspect of class content that is not clearly understood after talking with your peers.
I will bring photocopied articles to class on or before the day they are assigned. Although I will give you very limited reading time in class, you are expected to read all of these carefully, thoughtfully, and before they are due. Bring them to class and actively participate in our discussions about them. I will occasionally ask you to write briefly about these readings.
NCREL Learning Modules Dr. Charles J. Rop, The University of Toledo
For a schematic of the course modules and requirements, follow this link
This course is taught on a mastery learning basis using the typical U of Toledo grading system. Therefore, a grade of 3.0 will represent satisfactory demonstration or mastery of the required course learning outcomes. Grades 3.5 and higher will be earned by students who demonstrate very strong and outstanding achievement beyond the basic level which is required.
As in any mastery learning situation, you will have opportunities to continue to develop your work and deepen or extend your projects without grading penalty until both you and I judge them to be at least satisfactory. You are expected to draft and revise your work in order to gradually polish your course projects. As part of this process, you may wish to interact with your peers and other group members for feedback as you proceed toward the final product. Please make use of the Writing Center on campus for obtaining good feedback on written assignments. I will also meet with you and/or provide written feedback about your work in process as you request.
Congruence with the course outcomes, session outcomes, and project criteria as given
Accurate, clearly organized interconnected and contextual understandings of course content
Accuracy, organization, and clarity of oral and written communication
Attendance and participation
Note: Specific criteria will be provided for each of the course assignments and projects
Personal Report Card
VI. Tentative Schedule
|Session #||Theme||Activity||X= Due|
Part 1: Foundations
Creating a learning community
Good teaching--Our stories of good teaching strategies
Improving disciplinary literacy
Begin Module 1, Organize e-groups and send a message
What is "engaged learning"?
Begin Module 4 Professional Portfolio
Read Chapters1 and 2 of Moore (1999)
|2||Part 1: Foundations
A brief history of American efforts to teach adolescents
Good teaching--What do our government and the professional organizations have to say?
How to focus on student learning
|Begin Module 3 Preparing to prepare
Explore State and National standards in your subject area
Read Chapters 3 and 4
|3||Part 1: Foundations
Tools & Resources
Goals and objectives
|Curriculum Orchestrator tour
Tour NCREL Pathways
Access the Electronic Discussion web site, join our class and post your question or make a contribution
Read Chapters 5 & 6
|4||Part 2: Preparing to teach
Managing a classroom, strategies for inquiry and engaged learning
and Strategies for inquiry.
Read Chapters 7 & 8
|5||Part 2: Preparing to teach
|Module 3--Micro teaching #1||X|
|6||Part 2: Preparing to teach
Direct and indirect teaching methods
More case studies
|7||Part 2: Preparing to teach
Continue teaching methods
Classroom and school culture
The art of asking questions
Read Chapters 9-11
|8||Part 2: Preparing to teach
Assessment and evaluation
|9||Part 2: Preparing to teach
Assessment and evaluation
|10||Part 2: Preparing to teach
Assessment and evaluation
|11||Part 3: Implementation of Instruction
Read Chapters 12-15
|12||Part 3: Implementation of Instruction
Reflection & looking ahead
|Continue micro teaching|
|13||Part 3: Implementation of Instruction
Work session: Portfolio
|Read Chapter 16|
|14||Part 3: Implementation of Instruction
Guided practice & Capstone
Presentations, Module 4
& Module 7
|15||Part 4: Professionalism
How to get a job and begin a profession
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